# Optical models¶

## Photon energy¶ with Planck constant and is photon frequency.

## Coherent transfer matrix method¶

Transfer matrix method a convenient way of modeling thin film stacks. It is assumed that layers are stacked along axis, with being interface between layer and layer . Optical properties of each layer are specified by wavelength dependent complex refraction coefficient .

Optical field inside layer at given point along axis is specified by column vector , with being complex amplitude of forward traveling wave, and being complex amplitude of backward traveling wave.

Snell law is determines angles of propagation in each layer where index 0 refers to medium before first layer. is angle of illuminating wave. All angles can be complex numbers. Since is multivalued function, angle of forward traveling wave is found from conditions that forward wave has forward pointing Poynting vector, or alternatively, that the amplitude of forward wave decays in absorbing medium.

In this convention, interface between layers is described by matrix as with entries of matrix specified as where transmission coefficient and reflection coefficient are given by Fresnel equations for complex amplitudes of light passing from layer i to layer i+1. Coefficients for backward propagating wave and are eliminated using Stokes relations.

For s-polarized wave: For p-polarized wave: Propagation inside layer is described by matrix as  with phase-shift Light entering layer , on side of layer has vector of complex amplitudes with vector denoting light leaving the device on the side opposite to illumination, with being complex amplitude of transmitted wave.

Applying above to whole device gives with amplitude of illuminating wave set arbitrarily to and being complex amplitude of reflected wave.

When analyzing stack, firstly, solution , is found. Then intensity of light anywhere inside the device is calculated using found vectors and propagation matrices . Total intensity is found by applying Poynting formula. Absorbed energy is found by differentiating with respect to .

## Incoherent light¶

Incoherent light is described by spectrum . Absorption of incoherent light is calculated as where is calculated using coherent transfer matrix method.